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Black Choctaws

adailyriot:

This list of surnames represent the names of the freedmen who were adopted through the Dawes Commission, between 1898 and 1916. Note that many of these names appear in other Indian nation lists, and their appearance here does not provide proof of Black Indian Ancestry. In addition to these items, it is recommended that the researcher obtain as much oral history as possible on the family, and then locate the Dawes records on the family, including the names of ancestors on the Enrollment Cards and other pertinent records.

This list of Black Choctaws represents the Choctaw freedmen from Oklahoma, and does not represent persons from among the Mississippi Choctaws.


A               Coleman         Harrison        McChristian          Roebuck
Abbott          Colly           Harvey          McClendon            Rogers
Abram           Conard          Hatley          McCloud              Rose
Adams           Cook            Hawkins         McCoy                Ross
Adamson         Cotton          Haywood         McCurtain            Russell
Ainsworth       Cox             Henderson       McDaniel
Alberson        Craig           Henry           McDonald             S
Alexander       Cravens         Hester          McGee                Sakki
Allen           Crawford        Hicks           McGilbry             Sams
Anderson        Cris            Hill            McGuire              Samuels
Arnold          Crittendon      Hilliard        McKee                Sandridge
Askew           Crooms          Hills           McKinley             Scott
Austin          Croons          Hines           McNeill              Seely
                Crutchfield     Hodges          McQuilla             Sell
B               Cubit           Hogan           Meadows              Severe
Bagley          Culver          Holford         McKinney             Sexton
Bailey          Cunford         Hollaway        Meggs                Shaw
Banks                           Hollin          Meighbors            Shelby
Barber          D               Holt            Merritts             Shelton
Bardner         Dana            Homer           Miles                Shephard
Barley          Dangerfield     Hoppy           Miller               Shield
Barr            Daniels         Horn            Mills                Shields
Barrett         Daugherty       Hornback        Milton               Shirley
Barrows         Davis           Horton          Minner               Shoals
Bary            Demps           Hotchkins       Mitchell             Sholes
Bassett         Demus           Hotchkiss       Moore                Short
Battie          Dizer           Howell          Moors                Sifax
Battiece        Dockins         Hughes          Morgan               Simmons
Battiest        Dodd            Humdy           Morotn               Simpson
Beams           Dodson          Humes           Moses                Sims
Bearden         Donegay         Humphrey        Mosley               Sindham
Beavers         Douglas         Hunter          Moss                 Smallwood
Beckwith        Douglass        Hutchins        Munn                 Smith
Beeson          Duckett         Hutchison       Murchison            Spencer
Belcher         Dumas           Hyatt           Murphy               Spring
Bell            Duncan                          Murray               Stakohaka
Belvin          Durant          I               Musgrove             Stanley
Benson                          Ingram                               Star
Bibbs           E               Irving          N                    Starly
Bidden          Eastman                         Nail                 Starr
Biggs           Easton          J               Nash                 Stephenson
Binks           Edd             Jackson         Neal                 Stevenson
Bird            Edwards         Jacob           Neioll               Stewart
Birdsong        Eights          Jamerson        Nelson               Striblin
Blackwater      Ellis           James           Newberry             Stribling
Blair           Ellison         Jeater          Newton               Stubblefield
Bledsoe         Elridge         Jeffers         Nolan                Suton
Blocker         Epps            Jefferson       Noland               Sutton
Blue            Ervin           Jeffries        Nolen
Blunt           Eubanks         Jeter           Norman               T
Boatwright      Evans           John            Norris               Taylor
Boldin          Everidge        Johnson         Nourvle              Teel
Bolding         Evrett          Johnston        Nunley               Thomas
Bonham          Ewing           Jolly           Nunnally             Thompson
Bordon          Ewings          Jones           Nunnely              Thurman
Bowers                          Jordon                               Timpson
Boyd            F               Joseph          O                    Tinkshell
Boyles          Factory         Judy            Oats                 Tis
Brack           Farris          Justice         Oliver               Titus
Bradley         Featherspoon                    Osborn               Triplett
Brady           Featherston     K               Oscar                Tucker
Brasco          Ferguson        Keel            Overton              Turner
Brashears       Fields          Keith           Owens                Tyler
Brewer          Finley          Kemp            Owles                Tyner
Briggs          Fisher          Kendrick                             Tyson
Briley          Flack           Kendricks       P
Brown           Fleeks          Kincade         Paris                V
Bruce           Flint           King            Parish               Valliant
Brumley         Floyd           Kingsbury       Parker               Vaughn
Bruner          Folsom          Kirk            Parkins              Vinson
Bryant          Foreman                         Partilla             Virgil
Buckman         Franklin        L               Patterson            Voryd
Buckner         Frazier         Larkin          Patton
Buffington      Freeman         Last            Payton               W
Bulger          Freeney         Lathers         Pearson              Wade
Burks           Freeny          Lawrence        Pendleton            Wagoner
Burris          French          Lawson          Perry                Waldron
Burton          Fullbright      Lee             Phelps               Walford
Busby           Fulsom          Leflore         Phillips             Walker
Butler                          LeFlore         Pickens              Walls
Byrd            G               Leftridge       Pierce               Walter
                Gables          Lenox           Pitchlynn            Walton
C               Gaffney         Leppord         Pitner               Walzer
Caephus         Galbert         Lewis           Poleon               Ward
Cahill          Galloway        Liggins         Powell               Ware
Cain            Gant            Lison           Pratt                Warner
Campbell        Garland         Littlejohn      Price                Warren
Carney          Gay             Livingsyton     Prince               Warrior
Carr            Gibson          Logan           Pryor                Washington
Carroll         Gidden          Looney          Pulcher              Waters
Carson          Givens          Love            Purdy                Watson
Carter          Glover          Lovelace        Pursley              Webb
Caruthers       Gooding         Low                                  Welch
Cass            Goodlow         Lowery          R                    West
Cennis          Graham          Lownen          Radford              Whitaker
Chalk           Graham          Lynch           Railback             Whitby
Chambers        Graves                          Read                 White
Chandler        Gray            M               Rechardson           Wilburn
Chapman         Grayson         Mabry           Record               Wilkins
Charry          Green           Mackey          Rector               Williams
Chatman         Greenwood       Mahardy         Reddick              Willis
Cheadle         Greer           Mann            Reed                 Wilson
Chester         Gross           Mackey          Reeder               Wimbley
Chilton         Grundy          Manning         Reeves               Wine
Chism           Guess           Mansfield       Rentie               Woods
Choate          Guest           Mat-ub-bee      Reynolds             Wooter
Christian                       Maturby         Rice                 Worthen
Clark           H               Maupin          Richards             Wright
Clay            Haley           Maxwell         Riddle
Clayton         Halford         May             Ridge                Y
Cleveland       Hall            Mayes           Riffington           Yocubby
Cochran         Hampton         Mays            Riley                Young
Cohee           Hardlan         Maytubbe        Riston
Cohes           Harkins         Maytuby         Roberts
Colbert         Harnage         McAfee          Robinson
Cole            Harris          McCarty         Roby

(via rematiration-deactivated2013111)

Exploring Native ancestry: a how-to - ICTMN.com

adailyriot:

WASHINGTON – In a highly practical lecture Aug. 16 at the National Museum of the American Indian, author and genealogist Angela Walton-Raji offered little comfort for the family romances that seem to afflict beginners of all races in the field of ancestral research.

“Don’t go back as far as you can, as fast as you can,” Walton-Raji advised an audience of 30 or so on the topic of “Native American Ancestors of African-American Families.”

Don’t search for gold, avoid invention, and “understand the limitations,” she added – not everyone can document Native ancestry. Genealogy does not describe ancestry by physical features, so be guided by documentary records.

Above all, “You research to find, you don’t research to prove. … Go back to what you know to get to what you don’t know.”

All that said, the historical record is indisputable: Blacks and Indians have come together amicably at countless points of the colonial and American past, often in families and communities. The presence of escaped slaves in tribal communities is well attested; less commonly acknowledged is that many Indians found refuge in black communities, from the onset of Anglo-European settlement throughout the period of westward expansion. Such communities provided refuge from the pervasive racism of 19th century America.

For that matter, the worst crimes of white America, slavery and genocide, found partisans among the victims. Blacks formed special cavalry and infantry regiments following the Civil War; the tribes they fought across the frontier called them “buffalo soldiers,” an obviously ambivalent sobriquet (buffalo were treasured among tribes; soldiers, hated). And the slave-holding habit of some antebellum Southeastern tribes has brought freedmen – descendants of slaves and free blacks among the tribes – to widespread attention.

The historical record, then, holds much to find for blacks who have heard, or suspect, that they have Native ancestors. Walton-Raji provided specific guidelines for those of a mind to search the record. Among them:

• Start with oral history, often from within the family. Inquire about specific Native ancestors, find out the oldest family member within living memory, and get full given names at birth.

• Rely on standard genealogical methodology, a well-developed discipline that can be consulted in detail over the Internet.

• Look for specific Indian communities near where an ancestor lived. In Walton-Raji’s case, her family hailed from Fort Smith, Ark., a 19th century frontier town near Choctaw and Cherokee settlements. She learned from Choctaw records that her ancestors were freedmen, former slaves of the Choctaw.

• People didn’t get far from home in the old days, so siblings, neighbors, whole communities and regions matter. Did your ancestors visit others, and did others visit them? Join county historical societies and obtain the oldest maps available, which may hold community names and geographical designations that have changed since. “You want to become an authority on the region your ancestor was from.”

• Consult the National Archives. Census records are available from 1790 to 1930; a 72-year embargo on individual detail means census records from 1940 won’t be available until 2012, and so on.

• Some Indians are recorded in the censuses of 1850 and 1860, and whole families appear from 1870 and 1880 under the designations “I,” “In” or “Ind.” They are often designated “colored” as well. Individuals have been designated “B” for “black” in one census, “I” in another, and back to “B” in a still later census. Past census enumerators often based their designations on appearance.

• The special Indian census reports of 1900 and 1910 are of particular interest.

• Tribes near ancestral communities may have citizenship records. Among the most often consulted citizenship rolls (each with its separate limitations when it comes to genealogical research) are the Cooper Roll of 1855, the Creek Freedmen Roll of 1867, the Dunn Roll of 1869, the Hester Roll of 1883, the Wallace Roll of 1890, the McKennon Roll of 1899 and the Dawes Rolls from 1898 through 1914.

Though she is not formally affiliated with NMAI, Walton-Raji has been commissioned to write an essay for the museum’s traveling exhibit “IndiVisible: African-Native American Lives in the Americas.” Her lecture anticipates the exhibit, which has been rescheduled to open in September 2009, as part of the museum’s fifth anniversary observances, said Fred Nahwooksy, community exhibitions program coordinator.



(via rematiration-deactivated2013111)

jalwhite
madamethursday:

[Image: A photo of Patricia Spotted crow from the chest up wearing a white shirt and light gray prison shirt, looking directly at the camera.]
jalwhite:

WHERE IS PATRICIA SPOTTEDCROW??
Brenda Golden, Examiner, 8/26/12
After fighting for justice for over a year and a half, at the end of July 2012, Patricia Spottedcrow, a young mother, thought she would finally find her way home to her children, who are now 11, 6, 4 and 3 years of age. The Oklahoma Pardon and Parole Board approved her parole unanimously on April 16th 2012, and the approval signed by Governor Fallin on July 19th, 2012 with the stipulation that Patricia serve120 days in a half-way house.
Spottedcrow’s case gained national, if not global, attention as the poster child of extreme sentencing by judges who go unchecked in the court systems. Her case is indicative of why Oklahoma leads the nation in locking up women and remains dominant in cases of racial discrimination toward minorities in sentencing. Ms. Spottedcrow is enrolled with the Cheyenne and Arapaho Nation and is of African American descent.
In late 2010 the judge in Kingfisher County gave Patricia a10 year prison sentence for selling $31 worth of marijuana. She never in her wildest dreams thought that by taking a blind plea and throwing herself on the mercy of the court would result in such drastic results as a prison sentence. Two years was added to her sentence at the time she was taken into Department of Corrections (DOC) custody for possession of marijuana. So she began a 12 year sentence at Eddie Warrior Correctional Center in Warner, Oklahoma, roughly 200 miles away from her mother, family, four small children and community.
Dee Starr who is approximately 50+ years was awarded sole custody of Spottedcrow’s four small children Koby age 11, Jayanna age 6, Jayalah age 4 and and Jasalyn age 3. She was also given outrageous fines and probation for the same crime as her daughter. Dee works at the truck stop at $8.00 an hour and struggles to keep the family together since Patricia was incarcerated unexpectedly. She makes about $200 a week. Due to the distance and financial constraints she and the children were able to see Spottedcrow only a few times since her incarceration at Eddie Warrior and totally missed spending the last two Holiday Seasons with her in 2010 and 2011.
So they were ecstatic when the Governor signed Patricia’s parole papers in July 2012 and especially when she was moved to Hillside Correctional Center (HCC) in Oklahoma City on July 24th to serve the last 120 days of her sentence before being set free on probation. At least now Dee and the Spottedcrow kids could see Patricia on Sundays when they are able to scrape together gas money.
Dee visited her daughter Patricia Spottedcrow at HCC on August 5th for the first time in months, and for only the 3rd time in person since Patricia’s incarceration. Then on August 19th, just a week ago, Dee took Patricia’s children to visit her there and it was a traumatic experience. That day as they left HCC the children cried and cried so heartbroken, it was just too hard to take, so Dee vowed that she would never take them to visit Patricia in that place again. And after hearing them cry for their mom even more since, she told the kids and family, they would just wait for Patricia to come home in a few months and she’d go see Patricia by herself; “At least Patricia will be home in time for the Holidays to be with all of us” she told them.
All those dreams shared by Dee, Patricia, the Spottedcrow children, and the world, were shattered following the allegations by the District Attorney David Prater’s office on August 8th that the Oklahoma Pardon and Parole Board violated the Open Meetings Act and released ineligible inmates by law. Governor Fallon issued a moratorium on all paroles sometime Friday afternoon August 24th yet to be confirmed by her office or staff.
According to Patricia Spottedcrow’s mother, Dee, someone on the staff at Hillside Correctional Center went to Spottedcrow around 4 pm that day. They told her that her community privileges had been revoked and she would not be allowed visitor or phone privileges over the weekend because she was moving. They could or would not tell her where she was going. When Patricia was given phone privileges later that day, Friday, she called her mother, Dee Starr and through sobs informed her of the news. “I don’t know what is happening,” she said and told her mother she did not think she would be able to call her because her phone privileges were suspended.
Crying and upset, Dee immediately called Patricia’s attorney, Laura Deskin. “Did you hear about Patricia?” she asked her. Ms. Deskin was shocked, no she said, this was the first she heard that any parole moratorium issued by Governor Fallin would even affect Patricia Spottedcrow. It was her understanding that most of the concern was about the offenders classified as the 85 percenters’ release, Patricia is not part of that class. “And of course I got the news too late in the day to call the Governor’s Office, the office was shut down by that time” she said.
That same day, in response to an ongoing request for allowing Spottedcrow’s release to attend Native American religious ceremonies in the community, at 5:58 pm, a DOC employee wrote to an OKC White Bison Representative via e-mail, “Due to her (Spottedcrow’s) crime of Possession of Controlled Dangerous Substance in the Presence of Minor, she is not eligible for community placement (i.e. not to be placed at HCCC). The parole stipulation to complete 120 days community level work release made her eligible. Now that Pardon & Parole has placed a hold on her stipulation, she is no longer eligible pending the final decision.”
Deskin, earlier this month went on record publicly in support of the Parole Board and Governor Fallin’s approval of Spottedcrow’s parole and why the case is the type worthy of early parole in the interest of justice. But as of Sunday, August 26, late, she has yet to learn officially or given notice of any change in Patricia’s status. “The District Attorney’s Office set out a whole list of about 51 other peoples’ names in their allegations against the Pardon and Parole Board,” she said, “we would hope that all 51 had their stipulations placed on hold just like Patricia’s were and everyone else treated in the same manner, but we don’t know.”
Ms. Deskin called several Department of Corrections facilities over the weekend attempting to find Patricia without success. She does not know where Spottedcrow was moved to, nor does she know the legal status of Spottedcrow’s parole or what the “stipulation hold” actually entails. “David Prater alleges that the Parole Board did things in secret, well what about what is going on with Patricia right now? I would call that pretty secretive” she says. Adding, “All of this was done in secret; where Patricia is and what is happening to her now is being done is secret. It is so unfair to Patricia, Dee and especially her children.”
She further said, “That was the first I heard that Patricia’s status would be affected if the Governor issued a moratorium. The Governor had already signed off on Patricia’s early release with conditions. I did not think that could or would be taken back. My understanding was that the real concern was with ‘85 Percenters’ who had been given early release. Patricia is not one of those people.”
Dee has not heard from her daughter since that fateful call of Friday, “I am so upset, the last we heard from Patricia she was crying so hard and did not know what was going to happen to her next.” The family themselves are emotionally wrought from the sorrow of worrying and wondering about what is going on and where their beloved family member is now. “We thought the nightmare was almost over and the end was in sight, only to have the unimaginable happen unexpectedly” she said. She does not know when she will hear from her daughter again or where she was moved. But the hardest part is telling the children. She says, “How am I supposed to comfort and reassure these little ones concerning their mother if I don’t know where or how she is?”
Good point Dee.
Patricia Spottedcrow DOC # 622641Oklahoma Governor Mary Fallin’s Office: 405-521-2342

madamethursday:

[Image: A photo of Patricia Spotted crow from the chest up wearing a white shirt and light gray prison shirt, looking directly at the camera.]

jalwhite:

WHERE IS PATRICIA SPOTTEDCROW??

Brenda Golden, Examiner, 8/26/12

After fighting for justice for over a year and a half, at the end of July 2012, Patricia Spottedcrow, a young mother, thought she would finally find her way home to her children, who are now 11, 6, 4 and 3 years of age. The Oklahoma Pardon and Parole Board approved her parole unanimously on April 16th 2012, and the approval signed by Governor Fallin on July 19th, 2012 with the stipulation that Patricia serve120 days in a half-way house.

Spottedcrow’s case gained national, if not global, attention as the poster child of extreme sentencing by judges who go unchecked in the court systems. Her case is indicative of why Oklahoma leads the nation in locking up women and remains dominant in cases of racial discrimination toward minorities in sentencing. Ms. Spottedcrow is enrolled with the Cheyenne and Arapaho Nation and is of African American descent.

In late 2010 the judge in Kingfisher County gave Patricia a10 year prison sentence for selling $31 worth of marijuana. She never in her wildest dreams thought that by taking a blind plea and throwing herself on the mercy of the court would result in such drastic results as a prison sentence. Two years was added to her sentence at the time she was taken into Department of Corrections (DOC) custody for possession of marijuana. So she began a 12 year sentence at Eddie Warrior Correctional Center in Warner, Oklahoma, roughly 200 miles away from her mother, family, four small children and community.

Dee Starr who is approximately 50+ years was awarded sole custody of Spottedcrow’s four small children Koby age 11, Jayanna age 6, Jayalah age 4 and and Jasalyn age 3. She was also given outrageous fines and probation for the same crime as her daughter. Dee works at the truck stop at $8.00 an hour and struggles to keep the family together since Patricia was incarcerated unexpectedly. She makes about $200 a week. Due to the distance and financial constraints she and the children were able to see Spottedcrow only a few times since her incarceration at Eddie Warrior and totally missed spending the last two Holiday Seasons with her in 2010 and 2011.

So they were ecstatic when the Governor signed Patricia’s parole papers in July 2012 and especially when she was moved to Hillside Correctional Center (HCC) in Oklahoma City on July 24th to serve the last 120 days of her sentence before being set free on probation. At least now Dee and the Spottedcrow kids could see Patricia on Sundays when they are able to scrape together gas money.

Dee visited her daughter Patricia Spottedcrow at HCC on August 5th for the first time in months, and for only the 3rd time in person since Patricia’s incarceration. Then on August 19th, just a week ago, Dee took Patricia’s children to visit her there and it was a traumatic experience. That day as they left HCC the children cried and cried so heartbroken, it was just too hard to take, so Dee vowed that she would never take them to visit Patricia in that place again. And after hearing them cry for their mom even more since, she told the kids and family, they would just wait for Patricia to come home in a few months and she’d go see Patricia by herself; “At least Patricia will be home in time for the Holidays to be with all of us” she told them.

All those dreams shared by Dee, Patricia, the Spottedcrow children, and the world, were shattered following the allegations by the District Attorney David Prater’s office on August 8th that the Oklahoma Pardon and Parole Board violated the Open Meetings Act and released ineligible inmates by law. Governor Fallon issued a moratorium on all paroles sometime Friday afternoon August 24th yet to be confirmed by her office or staff.

According to Patricia Spottedcrow’s mother, Dee, someone on the staff at Hillside Correctional Center went to Spottedcrow around 4 pm that day. They told her that her community privileges had been revoked and she would not be allowed visitor or phone privileges over the weekend because she was moving. They could or would not tell her where she was going. When Patricia was given phone privileges later that day, Friday, she called her mother, Dee Starr and through sobs informed her of the news. “I don’t know what is happening,” she said and told her mother she did not think she would be able to call her because her phone privileges were suspended.

Crying and upset, Dee immediately called Patricia’s attorney, Laura Deskin. “Did you hear about Patricia?” she asked her. Ms. Deskin was shocked, no she said, this was the first she heard that any parole moratorium issued by Governor Fallin would even affect Patricia Spottedcrow. It was her understanding that most of the concern was about the offenders classified as the 85 percenters’ release, Patricia is not part of that class. “And of course I got the news too late in the day to call the Governor’s Office, the office was shut down by that time” she said.

That same day, in response to an ongoing request for allowing Spottedcrow’s release to attend Native American religious ceremonies in the community, at 5:58 pm, a DOC employee wrote to an OKC White Bison Representative via e-mail, “Due to her (Spottedcrow’s) crime of Possession of Controlled Dangerous Substance in the Presence of Minor, she is not eligible for community placement (i.e. not to be placed at HCCC). The parole stipulation to complete 120 days community level work release made her eligible. Now that Pardon & Parole has placed a hold on her stipulation, she is no longer eligible pending the final decision.”

Deskin, earlier this month went on record publicly in support of the Parole Board and Governor Fallin’s approval of Spottedcrow’s parole and why the case is the type worthy of early parole in the interest of justice. But as of Sunday, August 26, late, she has yet to learn officially or given notice of any change in Patricia’s status. “The District Attorney’s Office set out a whole list of about 51 other peoples’ names in their allegations against the Pardon and Parole Board,” she said, “we would hope that all 51 had their stipulations placed on hold just like Patricia’s were and everyone else treated in the same manner, but we don’t know.”

Ms. Deskin called several Department of Corrections facilities over the weekend attempting to find Patricia without success. She does not know where Spottedcrow was moved to, nor does she know the legal status of Spottedcrow’s parole or what the “stipulation hold” actually entails. “David Prater alleges that the Parole Board did things in secret, well what about what is going on with Patricia right now? I would call that pretty secretive” she says. Adding, “All of this was done in secret; where Patricia is and what is happening to her now is being done is secret. It is so unfair to Patricia, Dee and especially her children.”

She further said, “That was the first I heard that Patricia’s status would be affected if the Governor issued a moratorium. The Governor had already signed off on Patricia’s early release with conditions. I did not think that could or would be taken back. My understanding was that the real concern was with ‘85 Percenters’ who had been given early release. Patricia is not one of those people.”

Dee has not heard from her daughter since that fateful call of Friday, “I am so upset, the last we heard from Patricia she was crying so hard and did not know what was going to happen to her next.” The family themselves are emotionally wrought from the sorrow of worrying and wondering about what is going on and where their beloved family member is now. “We thought the nightmare was almost over and the end was in sight, only to have the unimaginable happen unexpectedly” she said. She does not know when she will hear from her daughter again or where she was moved. But the hardest part is telling the children. She says, “How am I supposed to comfort and reassure these little ones concerning their mother if I don’t know where or how she is?”

Good point Dee.

Patricia Spottedcrow DOC # 622641
Oklahoma Governor Mary Fallin’s Office: 405-521-2342

alostbird
To prevent Africans and Native Americans from uniting Europeans played skillfully on racial differences and ethnic rivalries. They kept the pot of animosity boiling. Whites turned Indians into slavehunter and slaveowners, and Africans into “Indian-fighters.” Light-skinned Africans were pitted against dark-skinned, free against enslaved, Black Indians against “pure” Africans or “pure” Indians.

William Loren Katz, Black Indians: A Hidden Heritage, p. 13 (via a-lostbird)

(via snarkbender)

adailyriot:

cute!

adailyriot:

cute!

(via rematiration-deactivated2013111)

chocol8luv:

“What motivates people who look “black” to claim to be Indian? When answered in a manner divorced from lived experience, the question produces many misplaced expectations about black and Indian mixed-bloods and demonstrates the fixity with which American race making practices ascribe blackness. The question is central because it engages the problematic American cultural practice of assessing and assuming identity from skin color… One set of expectations urges black and Indian mixed-blood to accept that they are black and stop “pretending” to be Indian. this requires individuals to forget that they have indian relatives and remember that it is skin color that determines who they are. This expectation about African and Native American bloods created several misconceptions that 1) assessments of of heritage from skin are viable and accurate; 2)family composition and lived cultural practices can be determined  from an individual’s skin color;…”

-excerpt from What Is A Black Indian by Robert Keith Collins in the book inDivisible 

(via chocol8luv-deactivated20120308)

the-original-dtwps

With solidarity for the shit that happened to jalwhite.

dumbthingswhitepplsay:

Like I said at 8am this morning, I plan to post about this all motherfucking day.

So late last night, someone told well known Black NDN jalwhite that “they need to stop talking about being Native because they don’t have the ‘Native’ experience; they just look Black”.

I’m a code expert, so naturally, this was translated in my head as “Hey nigger, get the fuck out of my pale as fuck Native spaces”. This is also going off poemsofthedead’s post that the anon who sent this was probably Native themselves. I’m gonna trust them on it because they’re one of maybe 2 non-Black Natives ever who actually gives any fucks about Black people at all.

Mind you, back when I actually saw Native posts on my dash, I OBVIOUSLY noticed the color. That said, there wasn’t much of it. Maybe ONE person in the picture post that went around in November actually “looked Native”. Most? Looked either white, just shy of white, or vaguely Latin/Southeast Asian.

So I just find it hilarious and amazing that in a group of people who go around complaining that “Natives can look like everything” and particularly pale and white-passing ones who go around talking about “Natives never deny my Nativeness, only non-Natives do”, SOMEONE in that community sent jalwhite this.

And I ain’t heard not ONE FUCKING PEEP from the giant LEGION of pale Natives, PEOPLE PRIVILEGED OVER ME, who were quick to call me “blood myth”, “pretendian”, and bring up blood quantum in a motherfucking post about me musing on my own lost history due to Blackness.

NOT A PEEP.

I see some Natives leaping to the bone EVERY time something vaguely appropriative comes along. All the Black-NDNs-who-know-their-tribe (because I refuse to pretend that we weren’t BOOTED or FORCED out of tribes that white people were allowed into like some of y’all) I follow continuously post in solidarity. I even reblog those posts, even though I say nothing.

Don’t never, ever, EVER see none of the non-Black ones, except poemsofthedead, EVER saying shit to help NO ONE else, EVEN PEOPLE IN THEIR OWN COMMUNITY LIKE JALWHITE.

I am not even going to hold my breath that but two people in the non-Black Native community give a fuck about what that anon said to jalwhite. I’m done with exercises in futility, I’m done with one-sided solidarity, I’m done with, once again, those closest to light and white getting what they need while niggers sit at the bottom again.

DONE.

(via the-goddamazon)

jalwhite

fangirlmarena asked: #3 is one of many reasons why I haven’t gotten into the whole ~tumblr ndn community~ thing. There are a few people who I remember saying some truly fucked up shit during the whole black ndn imbroglio back in November, which was right when I was just getting back into tumblr. That shit hurt, and I haven’t forgotten it. And, some of these people seem to be really popular with the self-proclaimed “tumblr ndn community.” So, I’ll pass on that shit. I’m used to feeling left out of Native shit anyway.

fangirlmarena:

jalwhite:

Yes.

I have struggled with this a lot. I use the #NDN hashtag because it’s important for me to claim it and to contribute to what the definition of it is / can be — and it has meaning for me outside of Tumblr.  Plus, I do feel community with folks - but in my head that list is very clear. My NDN community is not the same as THE #NDN community. It can’t be. Community is a two-way street and there are folks who have made it really clear that they want to keep us on the outside.

There are a lot of folks that are hella complacent with all the anti-Black (Native) shit and I’ve really run out of my patience for this. Cecily could post a great article or commentary on tumblr and folks would not reblog it because they feel like she’s done too much hurtful/disrespectful shit to be taken seriously or supported. But when it comes to folks saying anti-Black shit, it seems like it’s only the Black Natives and a handful (seriously, 1 hand) of our allies that remember who said what and who never once fucking took any responsibility for their actions.

Like, it’s all fine and good if you want to tell me that you’re sorry that folks are being fucked up and saying anti-Black shit but WHAT ARE YOU DOING TO SHOW THEM THAT THIS WON’T BE TOLERATED. WHAT ARE YOU DOING TO SHUT THIS SHIT DOWN? WHY ARE YOU WAITING ON US TO TELL YOU WHEN SHIT IS FUCKED UP?

I would die of shock if Native folks that aren’t Black started to become the ones that called out the anti-Black shit in the “community”. I tried to make a list of folks that have really held others accountable for more than just one day and Poemsofthedead was the only one that I could think of. I mean, I’m sure I’m missing people —- I know that I am —- but it’s a real fucking struggle to make that list.

And I’m so not asking folks to hold grudges - I want to be clear about that before I get people in my ask box. I’m talking about accountability. I feel like we’ve been given the silent “… get over it…” from folks. Seriously though, if folks don’t understand why this is “still an issue  — please just unfollow me right now. And maybe send me a message so I can unfollow you too.

I am just so exhausted by all of this.

In the realest of ways. I started writing this and I burst into tears. It honestly feels like it doesn’t matter what we do - we’re always going to be on the outside.

All of this right here gets to the heart of why I’ve been very wary of the “tumblr NDN community” that I’ve seen form. And, I thank Jal for putting it so eloquently and putting her heart into it because it’s an emotional issue.

For my entire life I’ve always been made to feel less than, been denied my indigeneity, and been subject to some of the worst anti-black prejudice from other Native people. It’s probably a matter of proximity since I attended a tribal school, but I’ve been called a nigger, a nigger bitch, been made bullied, physically and emotionally, for everything from my apparent smell to my hair, my skin tone, the way I speak and anything else that marked me as black.  I was made to feel ashamed of and hate my blackness, and I internalized a lot of that shit.  It wasn’t until I graduated high school and was out of that environment that I finally started to undo the damage, and it’s something I’m still working through.  It would be less difficult if I didn’t encounter the same attitudes,from my own family though (usually) not as blatantly hateful.

The bitch of it is that I’m not even close to the only one who has gone through this, who has been regulated to the margins by people that should be embracing them, by people we’d like to embrace. I’ve managed to forgive many of the people that tormented me because I know that their behavior was learned and that they, like the rest of us, internalize white supremacist thinking. But, I’m still angry. I’m angry about the rampant anti-blackness in native communities, and it doesn’t have to be people outright erasing me or abusing me. Sitting by silently while other people shit all over us is enough to let me know where people really stand. Expecting us to just swallow our pain while we’re regulated to the margins is enough to let me goddamned know where people really stand.

And, a lot of tumblr NDNs let me know exactly where they stood when that dust up happened back in the fall. I remember, can still feel, all of the pain and anger and resentment like I was right back in school with a crowd of students telling me that I was a nigger bitch and my lips were too big. I was back in the kitchen when my Grandma, a Native woman, told me that she didn’t trust or feel comfortable around “coloreds.” I was back in the car when my aunt told me about my uncle, both Native, accusing her of being a nigger lover because she’d had a child with a black man. A child she of which she was so ashamed of that she didn’t tell anyone she was pregnant and then left at the hospital to be taken in by CPS.

And, here are a bunch of Native people on tumblr denying or minimizing the anti-black strains in our communities or just straight up spewing some truly outrageous, hateful, racist bullshit all over my dash and reminding me exactly where the fuck my black ass stands. Cut to today, and I see that many of these people are generally well-liked and well-regarded by many in the self-proclaimed “tumblr NDN community.”  I see that many of these people were not held accountable by a large portion of the “tumblr NDN community.” And, I see that there’s still not a place for me in said community. So, like I told Jal, I do what I always do. I make my own community, and I’m really glad to have connected with some cool ass NDN and/or Black people on tumblr.

(via poemsofthedead-deactivated20120)

Excerpt: Black Indians: If You Knew I Had A History

adailyriot:

In 1774 patriot James Madison wrote about a slave revolt: “It is prudent such attempts should be concealed as well as suppressed.” The Black Indian story has been treated as though it were a massive slave rebellion. Its final burial came at the hands of a later white generation who shaped a heritage for books and movies that ended all claims but white ones.

These frontier omissions lie at the heart of our cherished national myth. The tale of the wilderness stands as the greatest American story ever told. It is the way we wish to see ourselves. “A frontier people,” said President Woodrow Wilson, “is, so far, the central and determining fact of our national history…. The West is the great word of our history. The Westerner has been the type and master of our American life.” Creators of this west did not want it sullied by a black presence or subject to Indian claims.

“The Frontier” went from gritty reality to uplifting truth and finally to nation legend. In the process entire races disappeared from it. Its cast of heroic characters included only whites. If Europeans bravely conquered continents, it was not necessary or desirable to show black and red people defying white authority to build their own communities in the wilderness. Racial stereotypes long pictured non-whites as cowardly and childlike. How could red or black men be shown creating a culture in the wilderness, bravely rescuing their families, and riding off into the sunset?

There is another problem in introducing a set of dark frontier heroes. Their love of liberty thrust them against some sainted U.S. figures. Thomas Jefferson, speaking of Indians, said “We would never stop pursing them with war while one remained on the face of the earth.” Andrew Jackson, the first great democrat to reach the White House, was first in the long line of candidates to win the presidency boasting of his Indian-fighting skills. He waged a cruel war against Indian men, women, and children. He staunchly defended slavery and, like Jefferson, owned slaves. To save their families, Black Indians had to fight of posses and armies launched by these national heroes.

(via rematiration-deactivated2013111)

Excerpt: Black Indians: Their Mixing Is To Be Prevented - The Southern Frontier

adailyriot:

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To an extent not revealed in Hollywood frontier movies, slave labor built the earliest European communities in the south. From 1690 to 1720, Africans cleared land, introduced African rice culture, navigated river vessels, and delivered mail in the Carolinas. Only the most trustworthy slaves were brought to the frontier, and most stood by their masters. But some fled to the woods and Indians at the first opportunity, giving their owners something more to worry about.

For British subjects the question of bringing slaves so close t he frontier and Native Americans stirred a lively debate. A South Carolina law of 1725 imposed a £200 fine on those who brought their slaves to the frontier. A British colonel urged enforcement “because the Slaves… talk good English as well as the Cherokee language and … too often tell falsities to the Indians which they are apt believe.” In 1751, another new law warned “The carrying of Negroes among the Indians has all along been thought detrimental, as an intimacy ought to be avoided.”

But sound racial policies on the frontier clashed with the desire to reap the profits produced by slave labor. Virginia surveyor George Washington, twenty-three, urged the use of “mulattoes and Negroes… as pioneers and hatchet men” in the wilderness. An early print shows a young Washington with a black and white surveying team.

British colonists tried to play one dark race against the other on the southern frontier. The Maryland Assembly in 1676 offered Indians  rewards for recapturing slave runaways. In South Carolina, in 1708, 5,280 European settlers tried to watch over 2,900 African and 1,400 Indian slaves. Europeans sent slave “cattle hunters” to protect Charleston from Indian raids. In 1740 South Carolina offered Indians £100 for each slave runaway captured alive, £50 for “every scalp of a grown negro slave.”

The conflict among the three races on the frontier had each side seeking allies wherever they could be found. During the Yemassee War of 1715, Natchez Indians murdered whites and seized their slaves. When the British ordered one thousand two hundred soldiers against the Natchez, they sent black troops along. And when Governor Charles Craven of South Carolina confronted the Natchez’s army he found it also included armed black prisoners.

By 1729 the frontier racial cauldron was boiling over in South Carolina and Louisiana. Slaves rose in rebellion at Stono, South Carolina. Terrified whites turned Catawbas Indians, noted for heir slavehunting skills, to recapture or slay all rebel. In Louisiana, the governor was shocked to learn Chickasaws had contacted a daring band of Banbara  Africans enslaved at New Orleans. His spies told him the two peoples had plotted and insurrection that would kill whites and create a red-black maroon confederacy.

Hardly had he solved this threat when he heard New Orleans was menaced by Chouchas Indians a few miles north. He governor sent off armed black slaves to carry out a massacre. 

The sporadic conflicts hardly matched the unending racial disturbances along the border between British Georgia and Spanish Florida. Spain relied largely on the blacks and Indians of Florida to resist any invasion by slavehunting British. When Georgia Governor Oglethorpe invaded Florida to 1740, Spain’s red and black troops repelled him. Oglethorpe learned that two hundred Africans, including many ex-slaves from Georgia, guarded St. Augustine.

When Spain ordered a counterattack on Georgia in 1742, their armed forces included a black regiment and “negro commanders clothed in lace” bearing the same rank as white officers. The British concluded they had more to worry about from this force starting a slave revolt in Georgia than anything Spanish troops might do.

At this time the British colonists in the southern colonies began introducing the practice of African slavery among neighboring Native Americans. They concentrated on the Five Civilized Nations- Cherokees, Chickasaws, Choctaws, Creeks, and Seminoles- as the largest body of Indians present on their borders. Their aim was to make their slave property more secure by making Indians partners in the system. Indians who accepted slavery would not take in runaways fleeting European masters.

Except for he Seminoles, the Five Civilized Nations began to accept the foreign idea of slavery. Even so, their idea of how it should work differed from British practices. Quaker slaveholder John Bartram, botanist to the king of England, visited some Indian owners in 1770. He found their slaves dressed better than the chief, married into the nation easily, and their children were “free and considered in every respect equal” to other members. After a visit to the Creeks, Bartram wrote:

“I saw in every town in the Nation I visited captives, some extremely aged, who were free and in as good circumstances as their masters; and all slaves have their freedom when they marry, which is permitted and encouraged [and] they and their offspring are in every way upon equality with their conquerors.”

But how did Native Americans view the way Europeans treated their African prisoners? Two European missionaries, trying to convert the Delaware Nation, returned rejected but with their report on the Delaware response to their plea:

“They rejoiced exceedingly at our happiness in thus being favored by the Great Spirit, and felt very grateful hat we had condescended to remember our brethren in the wilderness. But they could not help recollecting that we had a people among us, whom, because they differed from us in color, we had made slaves of, and made them suffer great hardships, and lead miserable lives. Now they could not see any reason, if a people being black entitled us then to deal with them, why a red color should not equally qualify the same treatment.

They therefore had determined to wait, to see whether all the black people amongst us were made thus happy and joyful before they would put confidence in our promises; for they thought a people who had suffered so much and so long by our means, should be entitled to our first attention; and therefore they had sent back the two missionaries, with many thanks, promising that when they saw the black people among us restored to freedom and happiness they would gladly receive our missionaries.”

Despite every European effort to keep dark people from assisting the other, the two races began to blend on a vast scale. Black Indians were apparent everywhere if one bothered to look. Thomas Jefferson, for example, found among the Mattaponies of his Virginia, “more negro than Indian blood ran in them.” Another eyewitness reported Virginia’s Gingaskin reservation had become “largely African.” Peter Kalm, whose famous diary described a visit to the British colonies in 1750, took note of many Africans living with Indians, with marriage and children the normal result.

That same year a Moravian missionary, J.C. Pyrlaeus, visited the Nanticoke Nation on Maryland’s eastern shore to compile a vocabulary of their language. Years later, all their words were discovered to form a language that was pure African Mandigo.

British authorities repeatedly tried to convince Native Americans to return the slave fugitives they harbored in their villages. But here they collided with an Indian adoption system that welcomed new members and offered them full protection. When whites argued about the right of private property in owning people and insisted Africans were inferior beings, the Indians usually shrugged “no.”

In treaty after treaty southern colonists made native nations promise to return fugitive slaves. In 1721, the Five Civilized Nations solemnly promised a governor of Virginia to deliver slaves, but nothing happened. The British complained bitterly on behalf of their slave owners, the chiefs apologized, and the ex-slaved became a part of Native American life.

When angry slavehunters decided to take matters into their own hands, they met fierce opposition. In 1750 Captain Tobias Fitch sent off a posse of five to retrieve a slave living in the Creek Nation. A Creek chief stood between then and the black man, cut their rope and threw it in a fire. Then he warned them his villagers had as many guns as they did. The posse returned empty-handed but happy to be alive.

African members of Indian Nations often played a vital part of armed resistance to whites. In 1727 Africans and Indians besieged Virginia frontier settlements. During the French and Indian War a British officer, warning about the two races, said “Their mixing is to be prevented as much as possible.”

(via rematiration-deactivated2013111)