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Black Choctaws

adailyriot:

This list of surnames represent the names of the freedmen who were adopted through the Dawes Commission, between 1898 and 1916. Note that many of these names appear in other Indian nation lists, and their appearance here does not provide proof of Black Indian Ancestry. In addition to these items, it is recommended that the researcher obtain as much oral history as possible on the family, and then locate the Dawes records on the family, including the names of ancestors on the Enrollment Cards and other pertinent records.

This list of Black Choctaws represents the Choctaw freedmen from Oklahoma, and does not represent persons from among the Mississippi Choctaws.


A               Coleman         Harrison        McChristian          Roebuck
Abbott          Colly           Harvey          McClendon            Rogers
Abram           Conard          Hatley          McCloud              Rose
Adams           Cook            Hawkins         McCoy                Ross
Adamson         Cotton          Haywood         McCurtain            Russell
Ainsworth       Cox             Henderson       McDaniel
Alberson        Craig           Henry           McDonald             S
Alexander       Cravens         Hester          McGee                Sakki
Allen           Crawford        Hicks           McGilbry             Sams
Anderson        Cris            Hill            McGuire              Samuels
Arnold          Crittendon      Hilliard        McKee                Sandridge
Askew           Crooms          Hills           McKinley             Scott
Austin          Croons          Hines           McNeill              Seely
                Crutchfield     Hodges          McQuilla             Sell
B               Cubit           Hogan           Meadows              Severe
Bagley          Culver          Holford         McKinney             Sexton
Bailey          Cunford         Hollaway        Meggs                Shaw
Banks                           Hollin          Meighbors            Shelby
Barber          D               Holt            Merritts             Shelton
Bardner         Dana            Homer           Miles                Shephard
Barley          Dangerfield     Hoppy           Miller               Shield
Barr            Daniels         Horn            Mills                Shields
Barrett         Daugherty       Hornback        Milton               Shirley
Barrows         Davis           Horton          Minner               Shoals
Bary            Demps           Hotchkins       Mitchell             Sholes
Bassett         Demus           Hotchkiss       Moore                Short
Battie          Dizer           Howell          Moors                Sifax
Battiece        Dockins         Hughes          Morgan               Simmons
Battiest        Dodd            Humdy           Morotn               Simpson
Beams           Dodson          Humes           Moses                Sims
Bearden         Donegay         Humphrey        Mosley               Sindham
Beavers         Douglas         Hunter          Moss                 Smallwood
Beckwith        Douglass        Hutchins        Munn                 Smith
Beeson          Duckett         Hutchison       Murchison            Spencer
Belcher         Dumas           Hyatt           Murphy               Spring
Bell            Duncan                          Murray               Stakohaka
Belvin          Durant          I               Musgrove             Stanley
Benson                          Ingram                               Star
Bibbs           E               Irving          N                    Starly
Bidden          Eastman                         Nail                 Starr
Biggs           Easton          J               Nash                 Stephenson
Binks           Edd             Jackson         Neal                 Stevenson
Bird            Edwards         Jacob           Neioll               Stewart
Birdsong        Eights          Jamerson        Nelson               Striblin
Blackwater      Ellis           James           Newberry             Stribling
Blair           Ellison         Jeater          Newton               Stubblefield
Bledsoe         Elridge         Jeffers         Nolan                Suton
Blocker         Epps            Jefferson       Noland               Sutton
Blue            Ervin           Jeffries        Nolen
Blunt           Eubanks         Jeter           Norman               T
Boatwright      Evans           John            Norris               Taylor
Boldin          Everidge        Johnson         Nourvle              Teel
Bolding         Evrett          Johnston        Nunley               Thomas
Bonham          Ewing           Jolly           Nunnally             Thompson
Bordon          Ewings          Jones           Nunnely              Thurman
Bowers                          Jordon                               Timpson
Boyd            F               Joseph          O                    Tinkshell
Boyles          Factory         Judy            Oats                 Tis
Brack           Farris          Justice         Oliver               Titus
Bradley         Featherspoon                    Osborn               Triplett
Brady           Featherston     K               Oscar                Tucker
Brasco          Ferguson        Keel            Overton              Turner
Brashears       Fields          Keith           Owens                Tyler
Brewer          Finley          Kemp            Owles                Tyner
Briggs          Fisher          Kendrick                             Tyson
Briley          Flack           Kendricks       P
Brown           Fleeks          Kincade         Paris                V
Bruce           Flint           King            Parish               Valliant
Brumley         Floyd           Kingsbury       Parker               Vaughn
Bruner          Folsom          Kirk            Parkins              Vinson
Bryant          Foreman                         Partilla             Virgil
Buckman         Franklin        L               Patterson            Voryd
Buckner         Frazier         Larkin          Patton
Buffington      Freeman         Last            Payton               W
Bulger          Freeney         Lathers         Pearson              Wade
Burks           Freeny          Lawrence        Pendleton            Wagoner
Burris          French          Lawson          Perry                Waldron
Burton          Fullbright      Lee             Phelps               Walford
Busby           Fulsom          Leflore         Phillips             Walker
Butler                          LeFlore         Pickens              Walls
Byrd            G               Leftridge       Pierce               Walter
                Gables          Lenox           Pitchlynn            Walton
C               Gaffney         Leppord         Pitner               Walzer
Caephus         Galbert         Lewis           Poleon               Ward
Cahill          Galloway        Liggins         Powell               Ware
Cain            Gant            Lison           Pratt                Warner
Campbell        Garland         Littlejohn      Price                Warren
Carney          Gay             Livingsyton     Prince               Warrior
Carr            Gibson          Logan           Pryor                Washington
Carroll         Gidden          Looney          Pulcher              Waters
Carson          Givens          Love            Purdy                Watson
Carter          Glover          Lovelace        Pursley              Webb
Caruthers       Gooding         Low                                  Welch
Cass            Goodlow         Lowery          R                    West
Cennis          Graham          Lownen          Radford              Whitaker
Chalk           Graham          Lynch           Railback             Whitby
Chambers        Graves                          Read                 White
Chandler        Gray            M               Rechardson           Wilburn
Chapman         Grayson         Mabry           Record               Wilkins
Charry          Green           Mackey          Rector               Williams
Chatman         Greenwood       Mahardy         Reddick              Willis
Cheadle         Greer           Mann            Reed                 Wilson
Chester         Gross           Mackey          Reeder               Wimbley
Chilton         Grundy          Manning         Reeves               Wine
Chism           Guess           Mansfield       Rentie               Woods
Choate          Guest           Mat-ub-bee      Reynolds             Wooter
Christian                       Maturby         Rice                 Worthen
Clark           H               Maupin          Richards             Wright
Clay            Haley           Maxwell         Riddle
Clayton         Halford         May             Ridge                Y
Cleveland       Hall            Mayes           Riffington           Yocubby
Cochran         Hampton         Mays            Riley                Young
Cohee           Hardlan         Maytubbe        Riston
Cohes           Harkins         Maytuby         Roberts
Colbert         Harnage         McAfee          Robinson
Cole            Harris          McCarty         Roby

(via rematiration-deactivated2013111)

adailyriot:

cute!

adailyriot:

cute!

(via rematiration-deactivated2013111)

about natives in virginia

deluxvivens:

So in the latest go round about who gets to be native, I saw a reference to people not really being native b/c they cant really prove who they are via genealogy so they arent really native at all, or something. For the umpteenth time I am going to post Walter Plecker’s letter from 1943.

This man *deliberately* created a paper genocide policy for all virginia natives and mixed virginia natives that was in effect for decades.  Note the second part where he went after specific entire families. I’d also like to remind people that this man was reached out to by the Nazis on their eugenics program. You can find the original letter here.

January 1943



Local Registrars, Physicians, Health
Officers, Nurses, School Superintendents,
and Clerks of the Courts

Dear Co-workers:

Our December 1942 letter to local registrars, also mailed to the clerks, set forth the determined effort to escape from the negro race of groups of “free issues,” or descendants of the “free mulattoes” of early days, so listed prior to 1865 in the United States census and various types of State records, as distin-
guished from slave negroes.

Now that these people are playing up the advantages gained by being permitted to give “Indian” as the race of the child’s parents on birth certificates, we see the great mistake made in not stopping earlier the organized propagation of this racial falsehood. They have been using the advantage thus gained
as an aid to intermarriage into the white race and to attend white schools, and now for some time they have been refusing to register with war draft boards as negroes, as required by the boards which are faithfully performing their duties.
Three of these negroes from Caroline County were sentenced to prison on January 12 in the United States Court at Richmond for refusing to obey the draft law unless permitted to classify themselves as “Indian.”

Some of these mongrels, finding that they have been able to sneak in  their birth certificates unchallenged as Indians are now making a rush to register as white. Upon investigation we find that a few local registrars have been permitting such certificates to pass through their hands unquestioned and without
warning our office of the fraud. Those attempting this fraud should be warned that they are liable to a penalty of one year in the penitentiary (Section 5099a of the Code). Several clerks have likewise been actually granting them licenses
to marry whites, or at least to marry amongst themselves as Indian or white. The danger of this error always confronts the clerk who does not inquire carefully as to the residence of the woman when he does not have positive information. The
law is explicit that the license be issued by the clerk of the county or city in which the woman resides.

To aid all of you in determining just which are the mixed families, we  have made a list of their surnames by counties and cities, as complete as possible at this time. This list should be preserved by all, even by those in counties and cities not included, as these people are moving around over the State and changing race at the new place. A family has just been investigated which was always recorded as negro around Glade Springs, Washington County, but which changed to white and married as such in Roanoke County. This is going on constantly and can be prevented only by care on the part of local registrars, clerks, doctors, health workers, and school authorities.

Please report all known or suspicious cases to the Bureau of Vital
Statistics, giving names, ages, parents, and as much other information as possible. All certificates of these people showing “Indian” or “white” are now being rejected and returned to the physician or midwife, but local registrars hereafter must not
permit them to pass their hands uncorrected or unchallenged and without a note of warning to us. One hundred and fifty thousand other mulattoes in Virginia are watching eagerly the attempt of their pseudo-Indian brethren, ready to follow in
a rush when the first have made a break in the dike.

Very truly yours,

W. A. Plecker, M.D.
State Registrar of Vital Statistics

Page 2


SURNAMES, BY COUNTIES AND CITIES, OF MIXED NEGROID VIRGINIA
FAMILIES STRIVING TO PASS AS “INDIAN” OR WHITE.

Albemarle: Moon, Powell, Kidd, Pumphrey.

Amherst (Migrants to Alleghany and Campbell): Adcock (Adcox), Beverly (this family is now trying to evade the situation by adopting the name of Burch or Birch, which was the name of the white mother of the present adult generation), Branham, Duff, Floyd, Hamilton, Hartless, Hicks, Johns, Lawless, Nuckles (Knuckles), Painter, Ramsey, Redcross, Roberts, Southards (Suthards, Southerds, Southers), Sorrells, Terry, Tyree, Willis, Clark, Cash, Wood.

Bedford: McVey, Maxey, Branham, Burley. (See Amherst County)

Rockbridge (Migrants to Augusta): Cash, Clark, Coleman, Duff, Floyd, Hartless, Hicks, Mason, Mayse (Mays), Painters, Pultz, Ramsey, Southerds (Southers, Southards, Suthards), Sorrells, Terry, Tyree, Wood, Johns.

Charles City: Collins, Dennis, Bradby, Howell, Langston, Stewart, Wynn, Adkins.

King William: Collins, Dennis, Bradby, Howell, Langston, Stewart, Wynn, Custalow (Custaloe), Dungoe, Holmes, Miles, Page, Allmond, Adams, Hawkes, Suprlock, Doggett.

New Kent: Collins, Bradby, Stewart, Wynn, Adkins, Langston.

Henrico and Richmond City: See Charles City, New Kent, and King William.

Caroline: Byrd, Fortune, Nelson. (See Essex)

Essex and King and Queen: Nelson, Fortune, Byrd, Cooper, Tate, Hammond, Brooks, Boughton, Prince, Mitchell, Robinson.

Elizabeth City & Newport News: Stewart (descendants of the Charles City families).

Halifax: Epps (Eppes), Stewart (Stuart), Coleman, Johnson, Martin, Talley, Sheppard (Shepard), Young.

Norfolk County & Portsmouth: Sawyer, Bass, Weaver, Locklear (Locklair), King, Bright, Porter, Ingram.

Westmoreland: Sorrells, Worlds (or Worrell), Atwells, Gutridge, Oliff.

Greene: Shifflett, Shiflet.

Prince William: Tyson, Segar. (See Fauquier)

Fauquier: Hoffman (Huffman), Riley, Colvin, Phillips. (See Prince William)

Lancaster: Dorsey (Dawson).

Washington: Beverly, Barlow, Thomas, Hughes, Lethcoe, Worley.

Roanoke County: Beverly. (See Washington)

Lee and Smyth: Collins, Gibson (Gipson), Moore, Goins, Ramsey, Delph, Bunch, Freeman, Mise, Barlow, Bolden (Bolin), Mullins, Hawkins. — Chiefly Tennessee “Melungeons.”

Scott: Dingus. (See Lee County)

Russell: Keith, Castell, Stillwell, Meade, Proffitt. (See Lee & Tazewell)

Tazewell: Hammed, Duncan. (See Russell)

Wise: See Lee, Smyth, Scott, and Russell Counties.

(via masteradept)

adailyriot:

Diana Fletcher
Diana Fletcher was born about 1838 in Indian Territory (now Oklahoma); her death date and place are unknown. Diana’s  father was born in Virginia; his parents were born in Africa and  brought to America as slaves. While still a young child he was sold to a  man who lived in Florida, ran away, and lived with the Seminole  Indians. He married a Seminole woman who died on “The Trail of Tears”  (the forced relocation of Indians to Oklahoma). Diana learned  traditional Kiowa crafts from her step-mother: sewing, cooking, tanning  buffalo hides, making teepees, and basketweaving. Some sources say Diana  taught fellow Native Americans. When the members of the tribe  raised enough money, they built a small school and hired a teacher. The  Black Indian schools were operated by what are known as ‘The Five  Civilized Tribes’: the Creek, Chicasaw, Cherokee, Choctaw, and Seminole.  Diana valued and preserved her family’s history, culture and  values, while, at the same time, learning to adjust and adapt to white  American society. Because of ignorance, prejudice and racial  hostility, the U.S. government attempted to force Black Indians, as well  as all Native Americans, to reject their heritage. Because people  like Diana maintained their traditions, we can now learn about their  important contributions to the history of America.Some sources say  Diana attended the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute in Virginia  (later called the Hampton Institute), although listings of students do  not reflect this. The Hampton government boarding school was opened for  Black students in 1868, with the intent of educating by training “the  head, the hand, and the heart” so pupils could return to their  communities as leaders and professionals among their people. In  1878, the institute opened its doors to Indians. The following year, in a  grand experiment led by Capt. Richard Henry Pratt, the Carlisle Indian  Industrial School in Carlisle, Pennsylvannia, was opened as a way to  assimilate Indians into “civilized” society, although without the intent  of returning graduates to their communities. Kiowa Indians, as well as thousands of Native Americans from many other tribes, attended these schools.

adailyriot:

Diana Fletcher

Diana Fletcher was born about 1838 in Indian Territory (now Oklahoma); her death date and place are unknown.
Diana’s father was born in Virginia; his parents were born in Africa and brought to America as slaves. While still a young child he was sold to a man who lived in Florida, ran away, and lived with the Seminole Indians. He married a Seminole woman who died on “The Trail of Tears” (the forced relocation of Indians to Oklahoma).
Diana learned traditional Kiowa crafts from her step-mother: sewing, cooking, tanning buffalo hides, making teepees, and basketweaving. Some sources say Diana taught fellow Native Americans.
When the members of the tribe raised enough money, they built a small school and hired a teacher. The Black Indian schools were operated by what are known as ‘The Five Civilized Tribes’: the Creek, Chicasaw, Cherokee, Choctaw, and Seminole.
Diana valued and preserved her family’s history, culture and values, while, at the same time, learning to adjust and adapt to white American society.
Because of ignorance, prejudice and racial hostility, the U.S. government attempted to force Black Indians, as well as all Native Americans, to reject their heritage.
Because people like Diana maintained their traditions, we can now learn about their important contributions to the history of America.
Some sources say Diana attended the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute in Virginia (later called the Hampton Institute), although listings of students do not reflect this. The Hampton government boarding school was opened for Black students in 1868, with the intent of educating by training “the head, the hand, and the heart” so pupils could return to their communities as leaders and professionals among their people.
In 1878, the institute opened its doors to Indians. The following year, in a grand experiment led by Capt. Richard Henry Pratt, the Carlisle Indian Industrial School in Carlisle, Pennsylvannia, was opened as a way to assimilate Indians into “civilized” society, although without the intent of returning graduates to their communities.
Kiowa Indians, as well as thousands of Native Americans from many other tribes, attended these schools.

(via rematiration-deactivated2013111)